By Peter Houldcroft, Robert John
Historical past and scope; ideas of arc welding; systems for particular fabrics; handbook steel arc technique; MIG methods; Cored twine welding; Submerged-arc and electro-slag approaches; TIG and plasma arc tactics; gasoline welding and slicing; Welding and slicing with energy beams; Robots for arc welding; Welding productiveness; overall healthiness and security
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Zweifel, Plastics Additives Handbook, Fifth Edition, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich, Germany, 2001. 24 3 The Effects of Processing on Thermoplastics We now know what plastics are made of, some of the things virgin materials are used for and the differences between thermoplastic and thermoset materials. It is here that we begin to concentrate on thermoplastics and examine what happens to them when they are processed. Methods are described in detail in Chapter 6. Processing in its simplest form is the act of melting, forming and then solidifying the melt.
Experiments of this kind have shown that short-term properties do not vary 47 Introduction to Plastics Recycling – Second Edition too greatly if the material does not contain glass fibres. Glass fibre is a very common reinforcement used in plastics. However, this material tends to become damaged when reprocessed. The mechanical strength of the plastic is dependent on the length of the fibres used and the act of processing reduces this residual length. However, a word of caution should be applied here.
This shows a stress-strain curve and indicates how values are obtained for: • Tensile strength at break (the maximum stress). • Elongation at break (the distance the material stretches (strained) before breaking). • The rigidity of the material is calculated from the gradient of the curve. This value is sometimes shown as the tensile modulus. 6) to drop, as well as causing premature failure of the material. 2 Impact Testing Impact tests measure the ability of a material to withstand a high velocity impact, for example, as might be experienced by a plastic kettle dropped from a kitchen worktop.