By Daniel Flynn
It is a concise,authoritative advisor to the identity and removing of corrosion in cooling water platforms and similar equipment-from a pacesetter within the box. ample complete colour images of exact mess ups illustrate the particular description of every universal failure mode awarded. Case histories stick to each one bankruptcy. a large choice of environments and kit are presented,including: open and closed platforms; recirculating and once-through preparations; traditional shell-and-tube exchangers and plate warmth exchangers; distinctive objective cooling preparations; and repair water platforms. subject matters coated comprise focus cellphone corrosion,biologically encouraged corrosion,chemical attack,cracking,dealloying,mechanically brought about attack,manufacturing defects,graphitic corrosion,exfoliation,and galvanic cells.
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Extra info for The NALCO Guide to Cooling-Water Systems Failure Analysis
12. Remove detritus, trash, or accumulations of foreign material on a regular basis. 13. In misting areas, exercise special care in maintaining paint layers. Regularly inspect known problem areas. Cautions Occasionally corrosive bacteria may colonize crevices. Although rare compared to ordinary crevice attack, microbiologically influenced attack should always be suspected if large amounts of sulfide or biological material are present in or near troubled crevices. Related Problems See Chap. 3, "Tuberculation"; Chap.
Avoid using hydrochloric acid to clean stainless systems if any alternative is possible. ) 8. In severe environments, welding tube ends into tube sheets may reduce crevice attack. 9. During prolonged outages, remove wet packing and clean gasketed surfaces thoroughly. 10. Judicious use of chemical inhibitors or cathodic protection may directly and indirectly reduce crevice attack. However, if conditions are very severe, economics may make such applications impractical. 11. Make sure all gaskets are in good repair and bolts are properly tightened.
The valve controlled flow of a chlorine-containing, low-pH biocide. Corrosion products are almost always absent in stainless steel crevices. Areas just outside stainless crevices are stained brown and orange with oxides (Figs. 21). Metal ions migrate out of the crevice. 4. Crevice interiors remain relatively free of rust (Figs. 17). On mild steel and cast irons, rust accumulates at crevice mouths. Darker oxides often are present within crevices (Figs. 19). 18 Wasted threads on small-diameter mild steel pipe.