By W. Bolton (Auth.)

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**Sample text**

In d e e p drawing, the region of thinnest material is close to the initial bending region at the punch edge. It is here that failure is most likely to occur. T h u s the thickness at this region may be 9 0 % of the original blank thickness, whereas in the flange close to the die edge it may be 1 1 5 % . In some circumstances m o r e than one drawing operation may be used in o r d e r to achieve the final required product shape. Sometimes the material may be annealed between drawing operations t o maintain ductility.

T h e process is used for the production of solid objects with differently shaped heads and stepped shafts, hollow objects open at both ends with stepped internal and external diameters, hollow articles with internal and external splines or teeth, etc. Press capacity Shearing, bending and drawing are all processes which can use presses. In selecting a press consideration has to be given to the required press capacity for the process concerned. T h e press capacity, or size, depends on: 1 2 3 4 5 6 T h e force required.

T h e effect of the drawing has been to take a piece of the original blank material, length L 0 and cross-sectional a r e a A0, and stretch it so that it has an extended length of Lx and a cross-sectional area of Ax. T h e punch in producing this extension has applied a force of F through the distance Lx. Hence the work d o n e by the punch is FLX. 34 The idealised stress-strain graph e n e r gy P e r U n it V o l u em = °y = {Li - Lo) T h e volume of t h e material is unchanged during the drawing a n d thus AqL0 Hence AXLX energy = AXLX a n d so a n d as = FLX AqIAX = AXLX = (LX x oy x - L 0) (*Λ L x oy x Lx) Lo LX/L0 If a circular blank of diameter D and thickness t is used t o produce a cup of diameter d and with the material thickness unchanged at i, then initial cross-sectional area = circumference x t Hence A 0 = nDt T h e new cross-sectional area is AX Hence = ndt F = ndtoy T h e ratio Did is known as t h e drawing ratio.