By Serope Kalpakjian
This booklet is taken into account as a reference for production engineering
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Automated assembly systems. These systems continue to be developed to replace assembly by human operators, although humans still have to perform some operations. Assembly costs can be high, depending on the type of product; consequently, products are now being designed so that they can be assembled more easily, and faster by automated machinery, thus reducing the total manufacturing cost. Computer-aided process planning (CAPP). By optimizing process planning, this system is capable of improving productivity, product quality, and consistency and hence reducing costs.
9 Lean Production and Agile Manufacturing Lean production is a methodology that involves a thorough assessment of each activity of a company, with the basic purpose of minimizing waste at all levels and calling for the elimination of unnecessary operations that do not provide any added value to the product being made. This approach, also called lean manufacturing, identifies all of a manufacturer’s activities from the viewpoint of the customer and optimizes the processes used in order to maximize added value.
Mass production: Lot sizes generally over 100,000, using special-purpose machinery, known as dedicated mac/vines, and various automated equipment for transferring materials and parts in progress. a. 4 Saltshaker and Pepper Mill The saltshaker and pepper mill set shown in Fig. 9 consists of metallic as well as nonmetallic components. The main parts (the body) of the set are made by injection molding of a thermoplastic (Chapter 19), such as an acrylic, which has both transparency and other desirable characteristics for this application and is easy to mold.