New PDF release: Lens Design Fundamentals

By Rudolf Kingslake

If one is after the specified mathmatics of optical layout, this can be a stable publication.

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Sample text

For skew rays, distances X in the third dimension perpendicular to the meridional plane are generally considered positive when behind that plane, because then the X and Y dimensions occupy their normal directions when viewed from the image space looking back into the lens. However, in a centered system all X dimensions are symmetrical about the meridional plane, so that any phenomenon having a þX dimension is matched by a similar phenomenon having an identical ÀX dimension, as if the whole of the X space were imaged by a plane mirror lying in the meridional plane itself.

Thus, starting with y1 and (nu)1, we first find ðnuÞ10 ¼ ðnuÞ1 þ y1 ðn À n 0 Þ1 c1 : Then for y2 we take y1 and add to it the product of ðnuÞ10 and d/n, and so on, in a zigzag manner right through to the last surface.

Next extend the incident ray until it intersects the arc having radius kn at point A. Now draw a line starting at point A that is parallel to the normal line and to the intersection of this line with the arc having radius of kn 0 at point B. The refracted ray is now drawn from the surface intersection point through B. In some cases this ray tracing method is found to be easier and often more accurate, in part, because graphical spatial transfers are minimized. 3 TRIGONOMETRICAL RAY TRACING AT A SPHERICAL SURFACE The path of a meridional ray through a single spherical refracting surface can be traced with high accuracy by various well-established procedures that will now be described.

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