By Arun S. Mujumdar
By some distance the main regularly encountered and energy-intensive unit operation in just about all business sectors, commercial drying keeps to draw the curiosity of scientists, researchers, and engineers. The Handbook of business Drying, Fourth Edition not just provides a complete therapy of the present state-of-the-art, but in addition serves as a consultative reference for streamlining commercial drying operations.
New to the Fourth Edition:
- Computational fluid dynamic simulation
- Solar, impingement, and pulse combustion drying
- Drying of end result, greens, sugar, biomass, and coal
- Physicochemical points of sludge drying
- Life-cycle evaluate of drying systems
Covering normally encountered dryers in addition to cutting edge dryers with destiny power, the Handbook of business Drying, Fourth variation not purely information the most recent advancements within the box, but in addition explains how advancements in dryer layout and operation can elevate power potency and cost-effectiveness.
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Additional info for Handbook of Industrial Drying
Knowing the adiabatic saturation temperature and the actual gas temperature, the actual gas humidity can be easily obtained as the absolute humidity from the saturation locus. 40 indicates that the sensible heat given up by the gas in cooling equals the latent heat required to evaporate the added vapor. 41 is derived from the overall mass and energy balances between the initial gas conditions and the adiabatic saturation conditions, it is applicable only at these points and may not describe the path followed by the gas as it becomes saturated.
On further drying (the second falling rate period or the third drying stage), the rate at which moisture may move through the solid as a result of concentration gradients between the deeper parts and the surface is the controlling step. The heat transmission now consists of heat transfer to the surface and heat conduction in the product. Since the average depth of the moisture level increases progressively and the heat conductivity of the dry external zones is very small, the drying rate is increasingly influenced by the heat conduction.
Capillary condensation could also have taken place. In section C the slope of the curve increases again, which is attributed mainly to increasing capillary condensation and swelling. The maximum hygroscopicity Xmax is achieved when the solid is in equilibrium with air saturated with moisture (c ¼ 1). 9). These differences are observed to varying degrees in almost all hygroscopic products. One of the hypotheses used to explain hysteresis is to consider a pore connected to its surroundings by a small capillary .