By Barbara Kanegsberg, Edward Kanegsberg
With all of the cleansing ways on hand, how do you opt which one is healthier on your wishes? parts brands ask yourself with a purpose to offer a aggressive aspect. Chemists and engineers fear concerning the impression of any procedure amendment on a serious part or at the balance of an irreplaceable vintage. there's no silver bullet, no magic drop-in answer. the easiest method is software particular and sometimes place particular. instruction manual for serious cleansing presents the instruments you must decide upon the easiest procedure in a swiftly altering international. Rigorous in its therapy of technical concerns, extensive in scope, and obviously written, the booklet contains cleansing agent recommendations, cleansing systems/chemical and kit integration, illness regulate, cleanliness criteria, analytical trying out, procedure choice, implementation, and upkeep, particular functions components, and regulatory issues and outlook.Cleaning, which used to be an easy determination between a number of cleansing brokers and kinds of kit, is now famous as a significant factor in approach regulate and product development. opting for the simplest method consists of an realizing of chemistry, engineering, safeguard and regulatory specifications, in addition to a pragmatic evaluate of the strengths and obstacles of the neighborhood team. instruction manual for severe cleansing indicates you not just what procedures can be found and the way to judge them, yet how you can customise cleansing strategies to fulfill your wishes.
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Extra resources for Handbook for Critical Cleaning
1996, 285 –289. 11. G. and B. Kanegsberg, Accelerating the Change to Environmentally Preferred, CostEffective Cleaning Processes, Tutorial with Precision Cleaning ‘95, Chicago, May 1995. 12. , Wetting Index, personal communication. 13. , Economic and environmental costs of process conversion, presented at Nepcon West 2000, February 29, Anaheim, CA, 2000. 14. Kanegsberg, B. and C. LeBlanc, The cost of process conversion, (in Report to Toxic Use Reduction Institute, B. , CleanTech‘99, Rosemont, IL, May 1999.
Observed behavior indicates, however, that different alkanes do have different solubility characteristics, perhaps because of the tendency of larger dispersion forces to mimic Figure 3 Within each class, solvents with higher molecular weight tend to be closer to the lower right axis. © 2001 by CRC Press LLC slightly polar interactions. For this reason, Teas adjusted the locations of the alkanes to correspond to empirical evidence. Several other solvent locations were also shifted slightly to reflect observed solubility characteristics properly.
The factors indicated in Table 6 are meant to provide a starting point. It usually becomes very apparent which factors are the most important in a given manufacturing situation. It is more productive to proceed with a nonlinear approach that considers performance, costs, cleaning agent, cleaning equipment, suitability to the workforce, worker safety, and the local regulatory microclimate. Table 6 Overall Considerations, Choosing Cleaning Agents Factor Process Consideration Cleaning properties, cleaning performance • • • • • • • • • • Materials compatibility Residue Cycle time Cleaning equipment © 2001 by CRC Press LLC • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cleaning requirements of your process (how clean is clean enough) Performance under actual process conditions Solubility characteristics relative to soil of interest Wetting ability Boiling point Evaporation rate Soil loading capacity Ability to be filtered Ability to be redistilled Compatibility under actual process conditions (temperature, time of exposure) Product deformation at cleaning, rinsing, drying temperatures Nonvolatile residue (NVR) level Rinsing requirement Process time impact Cleaning Rinsing Drying Product cool-down Component fixturing Loading and unloading equipment Product rework Suitability with current cleaning equipment Ability, costs of retrofit Costs of new cleaning equipment Auxiliary equipment required Maintenance, repair Automation, component handling Footprint (length, width, height) Equipment weight Component fixturing (continued ) Table 6 Overall Considerations, Choosing Cleaning Agents (continued ) Factor Process Consideration Flash point • • • • • • • • Toxicity Worker acceptance Cleaning agent management Regulatory, air Regulatory, water Company, customer, product performance requirements Costs © 2001 by CRC Press LLC • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Choice of cleaning equipment Process control Control of proximal processes, activities Choice of auxiliary equipment Choice of emissions control Acute Long term Anticipated exposure under process conditions (including sprays, mists) Employee monitoring Inhalation Skin adsorption Method of application Drying speed Similarity to current process Automation Computer skills Perceived loss of control of process Odor Water preparation In-process filtration (water, organic, or aqueous cleaning agent) Wastewater disposal On board redistillation Global, national, local (ODC, VOC, HAPs, GWP) Neighborhood concerns Environmental justice issues Production phaseout Usage bans Disposal of waste stream Global, national, local Disposal of waste streams Contractual requirements, restrictions Company policy Testing, acceptance qualification required In-house safety, environmental policy Insurance company issues Cleaning agent Cleaning agent preparation and disposal Costs as-used (dilution) Capital equipment Disposables Sample handling Total process time Rework Insurance Regulatory permitting Process qualification Employee education, training Process monitoring Table 6 Overall Considerations, Choosing Cleaning Agents Factor Process Consideration Supplier stewardship, cleaning equipment supplier • • • • • • Responsive distributor, supplier Supportive technical staff Clear, understandable MSDS Provides required technical information Provides required regulatory information Supports process development HAP ϭ hazardous air pollutant; GWP ϭ global-warming potential; MSDS ϭ Material Safety Data Sheet.