Geographic Information Systems: Socioeconomic Applications by David Martin PDF

By David Martin

This moment variation of Geographic details platforms builds at the strengths of the 1st, and contains vital fresh advances in GIS improvement and significant new socioeconomic datasets together with new census info. Martin offers an obtainable creation to the historical past, ideas and methods of GIS, with a different concentrate on socioeconomic functions. This non-technical quantity addresses the desires of scholars and pros who needs to comprehend and use GIS for the 1st time.

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A clear picture of the potential ‘horrors of automation’ is given by Robbins and Thake (1988). g. ), each of which may be associated with a particular symbology. 3, which shows a set of thematic layers superimposed to produce a map. Some specialized CAD software contains sophisticated editing and three dimensional-modelling functions, while modern CAM systems are more concerned with the ability to vary projection and symbolization of output maps. 3 Data layers typical of a CAM system without any associated topological information or area-building ability (Dueker, 1985, 1987).

Rhind (1977) notes that few geographers or professional cartographers were involved in the earliest attempts at drawing maps with computers. Initial developments tended to come from applications in geology, geophysics and the environmental sciences. Although there were suggestions for the use of computers for such cartographic tasks as map sheet layout, name placement and the reading of tabular data such as population registers, the early developments generally represented very low quality cartography.

It would even be possible to preview the appearance and design of a new product on a graphics screen before committing it to paper, and production itself could be made much faster once the data were entered into the computer. Morrison (1980) outlined a three-stage model of the adoption of automation, suggesting that technological change has been an almost constant feature of cartography, but that automation was truly revolutionary. The three stages he identified were as follows: 1 the early 1960s: rapid technical development, but a reluctance to use the new methods and fear of the unknown new technology; 2 late 1960s and 1970s: acceptance of CAC, replication of existing cartography with computer assistance; 3 1980 onwards: new cartographic products, expanded potentials, full implementation.

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