New PDF release: Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology - Quantum

By Robert Allen Meyers (Editor)

9 years has handed because the 1992 moment variation of the encyclopedia used to be released. This thoroughly revised 3rd version, that is a school point compendium of chemistry, molecular biology, arithmetic, and engineering, is refreshed with a variety of articles approximately present examine in those fields. for instance, the recent version has an elevated emphasis on details processing and biotechnology, reflecting the swift development of those components. the ongoing Editor-in-Chief, Robert Meyers, and the Board ready a brand new topical define of actual technology and know-how to outline entire insurance. part editors are both Nobel Laureates or editors of key journals of their fields. extra Board participants representing the worldwide medical group have been additionally recruited.

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This universal constant g is called the gauge coupling constant. We derived the above Lagrangian based on the gauge principle. Of course it should still be Lorentz invariant and invariant under space and time reversal. Unfortunately, the Lagrangian (17) is not unique, in that we may a add to it other terms of higher power of Fµν and ψ within the requirement of local gauge invariance, Lorentz invariance, and invariance under space inversion and time reversal. The additional requirement of renormalizability may eliminate all the irrelevant terms and fix the Lagrangian (17) in a unique way.

It is a not difficult to prove that Fµν F aµν is invariant with − a Fµν ≡ ∂µ Aaν − ∂ν Aaµ + g f abc Abµ Acν . (16) Finally we arrive at the general form of the Lagrangian which is invariant under the non-Abelian local gauge transformations (7) and (12), 1 a aµν L = − Fµν F + ψ¯ iγ µ Dµ − m ψ. 4 (17) It should be noted that in the above Lagrangian there exists only one arbitrary parameter g owing to gauge invariance. This universal constant g is called the gauge coupling constant. We derived the above Lagrangian based on the gauge principle.

Gluon A massless particle that carries the strong force from one quark to another. Gluons can also interact among themselves and form particles consisting of only gluons bound together (glueballs). Hadron Any particle of the largest family of elementary particles; they interact with each other through strong interactions, usually produce additional hadrons in a collision at high energy, and are roughly spherical. Lepton Member of the family of weakly interacting particles, which includes the electron, muon, tau, and their associated neutrinos and antiparticles.

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