By Mica R. Endsley
This publication is directed at human elements researchers and practitioners who're engaged in designing platforms to help state of affairs understanding (SA) in a large choice of components and is liberally illustrated with genuine layout examples.
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Additional info for Designing for Situation Awareness: An Approach to User-Centered Design
Time is a strong part of Level 2 SA (comprehension) and Level 3 SA (projection of future events). The dynamic aspect of real-world situations is another important temporal aspect of SA. Since the situation is always changing, the person's situation awareness must also constantly change or become outdated and thus inaccurate. In highly dynamic environments, this forces the human operator to adapt many cognitive strategies for maintaining SA. 3 SITUATION AWARENESS AS A PRODUCT OF THE PROCESS People have a number of different cognitive mechanisms upon which SA is built in their working memory.
Because the active goal(s) has an effect on SA, the effective juggling of these multiple, often competing goals as priorities change is very important for SA. , production vs. safety). Generally, a person only works on a selected subset of these goals at one time. 7, SA will help determine which goal(s) should be active (have the highest priority). The goals selected as active or primary determine several critical functions. a!! 7 Role of goals and rne~ltalmodels in SA (fi-om Endsley, 2000b) What is SAY 27 First, the active goal guides which mental models are chosen.
Because pcoplc can help the process of interpreting the world by using cxpcctations, they havc more mental resources left for other cognitively challenging processes. Expectations are a doublc-cdgcd sword, howcvcr. When wrong, false cxpcctations can also lead to misinterpreting the data. If another road is in a location ncar where the on-ramp is expected, pcople may 'mis-fit' that road to their cxpectations and falsely bclieve they are turning onto the on-ramp. In many cases, important cues will be missed if they arc not where they are expected to be or if other objects can be fitted to those expectations.