Download PDF by Raj Rajkumar: Cyber-Physical Systems

By Raj Rajkumar

Study the cutting-edge in Embedded structures and include the web of items the subsequent new release of mission-critical and embedded platforms could be “cyber physical”: they are going to call for the accurately synchronized and seamless integration of complicated units of computational algorithms and actual elements. Cyber-Physical platforms is the definitive consultant to development cyber-physical structures (CPS) for a large spectrum of engineering and computing functions. 3 pioneering specialists have introduced jointly the field’s most important paintings in a single quantity that would be crucial for all practitioners, researchers, and complicated scholars. This consultant addresses CPS from a number of views, drawing on vast contributions from major researchers. The authors and members evaluate key CPS demanding situations and concepts in a number of software domain names. subsequent, they describe the technical foundations underlying sleek CPS solutions—both what we all know and what we nonetheless have to study. all through, the authors provide guiding ideas for each aspect of CPS improvement, from layout and research to making plans destiny techniques. accomplished insurance comprises realizing CPS drivers, demanding situations, foundations, and rising instructions development life-critical, context-aware, networked structures of clinical units growing power grid structures that lessen bills and completely combine renewable power assets Modeling advanced interactions throughout cyber and actual domain names Synthesizing algorithms to implement CPS regulate Addressing area, time, strength, and reliability concerns in CPS sensor networks utilising complex ways to real-time scheduling Securing CPS: combating “man-in-the-middle” and different assaults making sure logical correctness and simplifying verification implementing synchronized communique among dispensed brokers utilizing model-integration languages to outline formal semantics for CPS versions

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To mitigate this hazard, the surgeon and the anesthesiologist must be in constant communication: When the surgeon needs to cut, he or she signals the anesthesiologist, who reduces or stops the oxygen being supplied to the patient. If the patient’s oxygenation level drops too low, the anesthesiologist signals the surgeon to stop cutting so oxygen can be supplied again. If medical devices could coordinate their actions, then the surgeon and the anesthesiologist would not have to expend their concentration and effort to ensure that the activities of the medical devices are safely synchronized.

Both of these actions can lead to missed true alarms and a decrease in quality of care [Clinical07, Donchin02, Imhoff06]. Various efforts have been made to reduce alarm fatigue. These strategies usually focus on improving workflow, establishing appropriate patient-customized thresholds, and identifying situations where 29 30 Chapter 1 Medical Cyber-Physical Systems alarms are not clinically relevant [Clifford09, EBMWG92, Oberli99, Shortliffe79]. However, isolated threshold alarms cannot capture sufficient nuance in patient state to completely eliminate false alarms.

5 Smart Alarms and Clinical Decision Support Systems Fundamentally, clinical decision support (CDS) systems are a specialized form of MCPS with physical actuation limited to visualization. They take as inputs multiple data streams, such as vital signs, lab test values, and patient history; they then subject those inputs to some form of analysis, and output the results of that analysis to a clinician. A smart alarm is the simplest form of decision support system, in which multiple data streams are analyzed to produce a single alarm for the clinician.

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